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    TPMS Quick Reference

    TPMS QUICK REFERENCE

    Here's a brief series of posts to help explain the following TPMS topics...

    1. TPMS Basics

    2. TPMS Warning Light

    3. TPMS Sensor Basics

    4. Cloning TPMS Sensors

    5. Cloning Demonstration

    6. TPMS Tools

    7. TPMS Tool Suggestion

    8. Mirage TPMS FAQ

    9. How to View Real-Time TPMS Data


    As we learn more about these topics, I will come back and update these posts so they stay reasonably up-to date.


    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 08-03-2019 at 01:49 AM.

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    1. TPMS BASICS


    What is TPMS?

    The Tire Pressure Monitoring System constantly measures the air pressure in the tires and alerts you when a tire pressure falls 25% below the manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure (indicated on the label in the driver's side door jamb).

    The recommended inflation pressure in a Mirage is 35 PSI...so the TPMS warning light will illuminate when any tire is at (or below) 26 PSI.

    The system uses a sensor inside each wheel which measures/transmits a tire pressure reading to the car's TPMS computer/receiver. The data is transmitted via a radio frequency using a wireless protocol specific to the make/model of vehicle.

    This diagram represents a typical automotive TPMS system...

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    TPMS uses a warning light on the instrument panel to report tire pressure status. If the warning light is off, the air pressure in all 4 of your tires is above the minimum inflation level. If the warning light is on, then one or more of your tires has low air pressure...or the system has malfunctioned.

    The Mirage has a low line TPMS...which means that the TPMS light is the only feedback the driver gets from the system. A high-line TPMS can display the actual tire pressure readings to the driver.



    How a Tire Pressure Monitoring System Works

    General TPMS Operation

    • TPMS systems use 4 air pressure sensors...one sensor is mounted inside each wheel.
    • A unique ID number is permanently written into each sensor when it is manufactured.
    • The 4 sensors are "paired" to the vehicle because their ID numbers are stored (registered) in the vehicle's TPMS computer.
    • Each sensor broadcasts its ID number and tire pressure data to the car's TPMS computer.
    • The computer "listens" for data transmitted from the 4 sensor IDs it has registered.
    • When the 4 registered sensors all transmit adequate tire pressure readings, the TPMS light remains OFF.


    System Checks

    The TPMS warning light will remain OFF as long as these two conditions exist:

    1. All 4 registered sensors are actively transmitting data
    2. All 4 tire pressures being transmitted meet the minimum PSI requirement



    Mirage TPMS Diagram

    This diagram illustrates what a TPMS system looks like when everything is working properly.
    I'm using the actual sensor IDs from my car in this example...


    PROPERLY FUNCTIONING TPMS SYSTEM

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    What does a TPMS sensor look like?

    Here is an OEM TPMS sensor removed from a Mirage. This picture is larger than the actual size so you can read the numbers printed on the sensor. If you look closely at the TPMS ID number, this is the sensor from Tire #4 in the diagram above. This TPMS sensor is about the size of your thumb and only weighs a few ounces...

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    How is a TPMS sensor attached to the wheel?

    The sensor clips onto the end of the valve stem inside the wheel. Even though it looks like a Mirage has normal rubber valve stems, they are actually "VS-90" (or TG1D) "snap-in" TPMS valve stems. These valve stems have a special metal end where the sensor attaches. Here is an image of a normal valve stem next to a VS-90 snap-in type valve stem so you can see the difference...

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    How is a TPMS sensor installed?

    Here is a video showing how various TPMS sensors are installed.
    Pay special attention between 0:42 - 1:14 where the VS-90 valve stem used in the Mirage is discussed...

    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-27-2019 at 03:32 PM.

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        click to view fuel log View my fuel log 2015 Mirage ES 1.2 manual: 51.5 mpg (US) ... 21.9 km/L ... 4.6 L/100 km ... 61.9 mpg (Imp)


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    2. TPMS Warning Light

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    What does the TPMS warning light indicate?

    The Mirage's TPMS warning light is the only way the TPMS computer communicates information to the driver. If the light is off...everything is OK. If it's on...there's a problem. It's that simple.

    TPMS LIGHT MEANING
    OFF All 4 registered sensors are transmitting data…and all 4 tires have adequate pressure
    ON One or more tires have low air pressure...OR...there is a TPMS system malfunction



    My TPMS light is on. Is the problem low tire pressure or a system malfunction?

    To determine which problem you have, you need to watch the TPMS light when you first start the engine. When you first start your car, does the TPMS light stay on constantly or does it immediately start flashing?
    Here's how to tell which issue you have...

    TPMS PROBLEM TPMS WARNING LIGHT ACTION
    Low Tire Pressure Remains on constantly from the moment the engine starts
    TPMS Malfunction Flashes for 1 minute after the engine starts and then remains on constantly




    What typical problems cause the TPMS warning light to turn on?

    Below are the 3 most common problems that cause the TPMS light to turn on.
    The diagrams represent what each problem looks like inside the Mirage's TPMS computer.


    1. LOW TIRE PRESSURE

    TPMS Light Remains ON constantly from the moment you start the car
    Explanation All 4 registered sensors are transmitting data…but one or more tires have low pressure
    Fix Check the air pressure in all 4 tires and inflate as needed


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    2. TPMS SENSOR MALFUNCTION

    TPMS Light FLASHES for 1 minute after you start the car…and remains on CONSTANTLY after that
    Explanation The computer is not receiving a signal from all 4 registered sensor IDs because a TPMS sensor is not transmitting (the sensor battery has died or the sensor is malfunctioning)
    Fix Use a TPMS tool to determine which sensor is not transmitting.
    Clone a replacement sensor using the sensor ID of the failed sensor.
    Remove the failed sensor and install the replacement sensor you just cloned.


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    3. TPMS SENSOR NOT REGISTERED

    TPMS Light FLASHES for 1 minute after you start the car…and remains on CONSTANTLY after that
    Explanation The computer is not receiving a signal from all 4 registered sensor IDs because one or more new TPMS sensors have been installed...but the IDs of the new sensors have not been registered in the car's TPMS computer.
    Fix Read the 4 TPMS sensor ID numbers in your wheels and store them into the car’s computer with a scan tool...OR...perform a Mitsubishi TPMS "re-learn" procedure.

    NOTE: You need an advanced TPMS or scan tool to resolve this condition.


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    Are there Diagnostic Trouble Codes for TPMS problems?

    Yes...the TPMS computer has its own set of error codes it uses to identify system malfunctions. If the TPMS warning light is on for any reason, one or more TPMS error codes will be stored in the TPMS computer to identify what the problem is.


    How do I read TPMS trouble codes?

    You will need an advanced TPMS tool or an expensive scan tool to read TPMS error codes from your Mirage. You can only retrieve these codes by interfacing directly with the TPMS computer through the OBDII port.

    NOTE: A standard OBDII Code Reader will NOT show you TPMS trouble codes because these codes are not stored in the Powertrain Control Module like normal OBDII codes are.


    If I correct a TPMS problem, do I need to clear the TPMS error codes to turn off the TPMS light?

    In almost all cases, I believe the answer is no. I think the only time you have to clear TPMS codes is if you are using a scan tool connected to the TPMS computer to initiate a re-learn procedure of all 4 sensors. I don't think the Mirage's computer will let you start the re-learn process until all TPMS codes have first been cleared.


    What TPMS error codes are used by the Mirage's TPMS?

    Here's a list of the Mirage's TPMS Error Codes...

    C1564 Vehicle's speed data invalid
    C1900 Tire ID code No registration
    C1901 Vehicles speed signal
    C1902 Reset fail (warning threshold)

    C1910 Transmitter battery voltage...Tire 1
    C1911 Tire ID reception fail........Tire 1
    C1912 Tire air pressure low.........Tire 1
    C1913 Acceleration sensor...........Tire 1
    C1914 Tire air pressure sensor......Tire 1
    C1915 Transmitter OFF mode..........Tire 1
    C1916 Temperature sensor............Tire 1

    C1920 Transmitter battery voltage...Tire 2
    C1921 Tire ID reception fail........Tire 2
    C1922 Tire air pressure low.........Tire 2
    C1923 Acceleration sensor...........Tire 2
    C1924 Tire air pressure sensor......Tire 2
    C1925 Transmitter OFF mode..........Tire 2
    C1926 Temperature sensor............Tire 2

    C1930 Transmitter battery voltage...Tire 3
    C1931 Tire ID reception fail........Tire 3
    C1932 Tire air pressure low.........Tire 3
    C1933 Acceleration sensor...........Tire 3
    C1934 Tire air pressure sensor......Tire 3
    C1935 Transmitter OFF mode..........Tire 3
    C1936 Temperature sensor............Tire 3

    C1940 Transmitter battery voltage...Tire 4
    C1941 Tire ID reception fail........Tire 4
    C1942 Tire air pressure low.........Tire 4
    C1943 Acceleration sensor...........Tire 4
    C1944 Tire air pressure sensor......Tire 4
    C1945 Transmitter OFF mode..........Tire 4
    C1946 Temperature sensor............Tire 4
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-04-2019 at 01:38 AM.

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    3. TPMS Sensor Basics


    What does a TPMS Sensor Do?

    A TPMS sensor's basic function is to measure the pressure and temperature of each tire and transmit this information to the car's TPMS receiver.


    What components are in a TPMS sensor?

    Each TPMS sensor contains the following:

    1. Temperature sensor
    2. Pressure sensor
    3. Radio transmitter...Sends data to the vehicle's TPMS receiver
    4. Accelerometer...Determines how fast the wheel is moving
    5. Processor...Stores the sensor's ID number and logic for transmitting data
    6. Battery


    What data is transmitted from a TPMS sensor?

    TPMS sensors broadcast the following information:

    1. Sensor ID
    2. Tire Pressure
    3. Tire Temperature
    4. Code identifying the data protocol of the sensor


    How often does a TPMS sensor send this data to the car's TPMS receiver?

    This will vary based on the manufacturer of the sensor. Generally speaking, once the car is moving faster than 15mph, a TPMS sensor will transmit data at least once per minute. If the car is not moving, the sensors are usually not sending any data...or they send it very infrequently to preserve battery life. Sensors also broadcast less frequently when they are moving at a steady speed vs accelerating/decelerating.


    How is the data transmitted from a TPMS sensor to the TPMS receiver?

    TPMS sensors use radio frequency (RF) communication to send the data to the TPMS receiver. They use one of two RF frequencies: 315 MHz or 433 MHz. The Mirage uses 315 MHz sensors.


    Do all TPMS sensors transmit data using the same format/protocol?

    No. All sensors send the same information (sensor ID, tire pressure, etc.), but they use different formats (protocols) for sending this data. The protocol varies by the car manufacturer (and sometimes even by the model of vehicle). This is the main reason why TPMS sensors are not interchangeable. For example: Mazda and Mitsubishi TPMS sensors both broadcast at 315 MHz, but they are transmitting different data protocols so they are can't be interchanged. Even a Mirage TPMS sensor may use a different protocol than an Outlander. That's how specific a protocol can be.


    What is a TPMS Re-learn?

    Re-learn is the industry's term for the process of copying a car's 4 TPMS sensor IDs into the TPMS computer. Remember that the TPMS computer won't recognize the TPMS sensors until each sensor ID number has been copied into the computer.

    The actual steps of the re-learn process depend upon the make/model/year of the vehicle. Each manufacturer has their own re-learn process. A TPMS system can use a simple re-learn process (stationary or auto re-learn) or a more complicated process (OBDII re-learn).

    • Stationary & Auto Re-learn:
      Some cars only need an inexpensive tool to trigger each sensor to register the ID numbers in the computer while the car is sitting still (stationary). Other cars can learn a new sensor ID automatically just by driving the car (auto).

    • OBDII Re-learn:
      Many Asian vehicles (including the Mirage) use a more complicated re-learn process. These cars need an advanced TPMS tool to read and register the sensor ID numbers in the computer through the OBDII port. This is called an "OBDII re-learn" procedure and is shown in the video below on a Mitsubishi Outlander...



      NOTE: The Mirage does have a stationary re-learn process where you can trigger each sensor to register the ID numbers. Unfortunately, you still need an advanced TPMS tool to get the Mirage's TPMS computer into the re-learn mode.

      Bottom line for Mirage owners:
      An advanced TPMS tool is required for any TPMS re-learn in a Mirage.



    What are my options for replacing the OEM TPMS sensors in my car?

    There are 3 different types of replacement TPMS sensors...


    1. Direct Replacement (OEM) Sensors

      Direct replacement sensors function exactly like your OEM/factory sensors. They are pre-programmed with a sensor ID and they are set to broadcast in the communication protocol required by your vehicle's TPMS receiver. You can buy these at the dealer or there are aftermarket options.

      Pro: No sensor programming is required...just install it out of the box
      Con: Requires a re-learn process
      Con: Tend to be the most expensive
      Con: Not universal. Each sensor is specific to a certain make/model of vehicle


    2. Multi-Protocol (Multi-Application) Sensors

      Multi-protocol sensors are pre-programmed with a sensor ID...just like OEM sensors. What makes these sensors unique is that they don't just transmit a single protocol (like a direct replacement sensor does). These sensors transmit data in multiple communication protocols at the same time. There are multi-protocol sensors available that can work with a wide variety of vehicles. These sensors make it easy for repair shops because one sensor can be used in all sorts of vehicles. When Discount Tire broke one of my OEM sensors, this was the type of sensor they replaced it with.

      Pro: No sensor programming is required...just install it out of the box
      Pro: One sensor works in a wide variety of vehicles
      Con: Requires a re-learn process

      Example Multi-Protocol Sensor: VDO Redi-Sensor


    3. Programmable Sensors

      Programmable sensors are blank when you buy them. A TPMS tool is used to program an ID number into the sensor. The tool also tells the sensor which communication protocol to use when transmitting data. These sensors are convenient for repair shops because one sensor can be programmed to work in many different vehicles.

      Pro: You can clone these sensors...so no relearn process is required
      Pro: One sensor works in a wide variety of vehicles
      Con: Requires a TPMS tool to program the sensor before it will function

      Example Programmable Sensor: Autel MX Sensor




    Which replacement sensor should I use in my Mirage?

    The replacement sensor you should choose depends on your ability to perform a re-learn procedure in your car. Remember...the Mirage requires an OBDII re-learn, so you will need a fairly sophisticated TPMS tool to do it. The dealer can do it (for $100) and some tire stores can do it. My local Discount Tire location has a Bartech TPMS tool with the required Mitsubishi OBDII adapter, so they can do a re-learn in a Mirage. This is huge because they generally won't charge you for this service if you bought tires from them.

    If you have access to a shop that can perform an OBDII re-learn at a reasonable cost (or free), then Direct Replacement or Multi-Protocol sensors will work just fine.

    If you don't have the ability to perform a re-learn in your Mirage, then consider programmable sensors. You can clone your existing TPMS sensors and replace them without the need for any re-learn procedure. We'll talk about that in the next post.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-27-2019 at 04:39 PM.

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    4. TPMS Sensor Cloning


    What is sensor cloning?

    TPMS sensor cloning is the process of copying the ID number (and data protocol) of an existing sensor into a programmable replacement sensor. The result is a new replacement sensor with the same ID and protocol of the sensor you copied.



    What is a programmable TPMS sensor?

    A programmable TPMS sensor can have any ID number and data protocol assigned to it using a special tool. This is different from a standard replacement sensor which is manufactured with an ID number and data protocol that cannot be changed.



    How does a standard TPMS replacement sensor work?

    A standard replacement TPMS sensor will have a new ID number that needs to be registered in the car's computer before it will function. In many cars the ID registration ("re-learn") process is straight forward and requires no special tools. Unfortunately, the re-learn process in a Mirage requires an advanced TPMS or scan tool.



    What is the advantage of cloning a TPMS sensor instead of using a standard replacement sensor?

    Cloning simplifies TPMS sensor replacement by eliminating the re-learn process.
    To replace a TPMS sensor, you just clone a new sensor...install it...and you're done.
    No other action is required...so you don't need an advanced tool to interface with the TPMS computer.

    • When cloning a TPMS sensor, you give the replacement sensor the same ID as the old sensor.
    • This ID number is already one of the 4 IDs registered in the car's computer.
    • The computer will recognize the sensor clone and the TPMS system will function normally.
    • Cloning works on any car equipped with TPMS sensors.



    Are all replacement TPMS sensors programmable?

    No. Standard replacement sensors have permanent ID numbers burned into them which cannot be changed.
    Sensors that can be programmed (cloned) are unique and can have any ID number written into them.



    Are programmable sensors expensive?

    Not at all. Many are actually less expensive than standard replacement sensors.



    Can a tire store or auto repair facility clone TPMS sensors?

    In some cases they can. More shops are now doing it because cloning sensors is the easiest way to service all makes/models of TPMS systems.



    If I clone all 4 of my existing sensors and use them in a second set of wheels/tires, will the TPMS light stay off when I put these wheels on my car?

    Absolutely! Cloning is the BEST way to maintain 2 sets of wheels that will both function with your car's TPMS system. You can swap the wheels on/off and your car's TPMS computer will never know the difference because it's always seeing the same 4 TPMS sensor IDs in the wheels.



    Can I clone a TPMS sensor myself?

    Yes. You just need a programmable sensor and a TPMS tool with the ability to program it. Read the next post to see how it's done.



    How much will a TPMS tool cost that can clone sensors?

    There is at least one TPMS tool out there that can clone sensors for under $130 (see it in Post #7). While that may sound expensive, keep in mind that a Mitsubishi dealer will charge $100 just to register 4 TPMS sensor IDs into your car's computer ONE time. Is your TPMS light flashing? My dealer charges $100 just to hook up their scan tool to tell me what's wrong. A local tire shop I checked with charges $79 each to buy/clone ONE sensor. There are places online that offer cloning service for sensors (clonemytpms.com), but they charge $200 for 4 sensors...and another $20 to rent a tool to read your sensor IDs. An inexpensive TPMS tool might pay for itself the first time you need a new sensor.



    Is there an industry standard for programmable sensors?

    I'm not sure about this one. Some aftermarket programmable sensors claim they can only be programmed using a tool made by the manufacturer of the sensor. For example, I have an Autel brand TPMS tool that can only program Autel brand programmable sensors. I don't know if this is true or not. So be careful if you try mixing brands of sensors and tools when cloning sensors.

    The important thing to know is that ANY programmable 315 MHz TPMS sensors (regardless of brand) should work with the Mirage. What we don't know is if a Brand X tool can be used to program Brand Y sensors.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-04-2019 at 04:03 PM.

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    5. How To Clone TPMS Sensors

    If you don't have access to an advanced TPMS tool to perform an OBDII re-learn, the easiest way to replace a TPMS sensor in a Mirage is to create a sensor that is an identical copy (clone) of the sensor you are replacing.

    You do this by starting with a “programmable” TPMS sensor…and then using the proper tool to write the ID of the old sensor into the new sensor. The tool also tells the sensor which communication protocol to use for your vehicle. When you install the new cloned sensor on the car, the computer will recognize it because it’s transmitting the same ID that the old sensor was and it's using the same communication protocol. There’s no need to update the ID of the new sensor in the car's computer because it’s already there!



    Cloning Process

    I'll walk you through the cloning process using my own TPMS tool.
    Other tools may work differently…but the concepts are the same.

    You'll need 2 things to clone a sensor for your Mirage:

    1. A programmable 315 MHz TPMS sensor

    I'll be using one of these sensors in this demo.
    NOTE: Autel programmable sensors are proprietary and can only be programmed with an Autel tool.

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    2. A TPMS tool that can read data from a sensor and program a sensor

    In this example I am using an Autel TS501 TPMS tool.
    Everything I'm showing here can be done with an Autel TS408 that costs less than $130.

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    Let's get started...



    STEP 1: Determine the ID of the sensor you are replacing

    Before you clone a TPMS sensor, you need to know that sensor’s ID number. The ID is an 8 character value that uniquely identifies the sensor. If the sensor you are replacing isn’t completely dead, you can use the TPMS tool to trigger it and see its ID value. If the sensor is dead and won’t respond to a TPMS tool, you'll have to remove the sensor from the wheel and read the ID number printed on the outside of the sensor.

    In this example I can read the data from the sensor I'm cloning without removing it from the wheel.

    I went out to my car and “triggered” the left front (LF) TPMS sensor with my TPMS tool. To do this you just hold the TPMS tool near the valve stem and press the trigger button. This is what the display of my tool looks like doing this…

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    "Triggering" a sensor means that the TPMS tool sends a low frequency “wake-up” signal to the sensor which causes it to transmit its data immediately…which the tool then captures.

    Here’s what the display of my TPMS tool looks like after capturing the data from my LF TPMS sensor:

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    Notice the ID value (8D2D988C) of the sensor. This is the ID we will be programming into the replacement TPMS sensor. Here is a pic of this sensor after it was removed from the wheel. Notice the ID value printed on the sensor. If this sensor was completely dead, we would have to get the ID by looking at the sensor...

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    STEP 2: Put the tool into programming mode

    The tool I’m using can clone multiple TPMS sensor IDs at one time. I’m just doing a single sensor for this demo…so I told the tool that I'm putting this sensor in a 2015 Mirage and then I navigated the tool’s menu and went to Option 3 on this screen to manually create one sensor...

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    STEP 3: Program the sensor ID into the new sensor

    Remember I’m manually programming this new sensor…so I have to type the ID number (8D2D988C) in this screen and select FINISH…

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    Place the programmable sensor within a few inches of the end of the TPMS tool.

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    The tool now starts writing this ID number into the sensor. At this point the tool is also telling the sensor to transmit data using a Mitsubishi communication protocol...

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    And it gives you feedback to let you know the programming was successful…

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    STEP 4: Verify the new sensor was programmed correctly

    To verify that this new sensor is actually working properly, I set it on a table and then triggered it with the TPMS tool. Here’s what the tool shows as a result…

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    You can see that the new sensor now has the ID stored in it…so it’s ready to install in the wheel.
    The pressure of the sensor shows 0.1 PSI because it's not installed in a pressurized tire yet.

    Also note that the battery condition is OK. As a precaution it’s a good idea to verify the battery condition before you install the sensor in the wheel. I have read some reviews where occasionally a new sensor has a defective battery.




    STEP 5: Install the new sensor in the wheel and test drive the car

    I had Discount Tire install the new sensor (they did it for free). The weight of the old/new sensor was very close...so the sensor can be replaced without completely dismounting the tire and re-balancing the wheel. I took the car for a 30 minute test-drive and my TPMS light remained off…so I know the new sensor is working and the Mirage’s computer recognizes it.




    TIP

    Write down the ID number of that programmable sensor you just installed! If it goes completely dead some day, there’s no ID printed on it! The number will only be known by the car’s computer. At that point, you'll need an advanced TPMS tool (or trip to the dealer) to read the ID numbers stored in the computer. I put a label in the barrel of my wheel with the ID printed on it...

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    Cloning is the way to go if you don't have access to an advanced TPMS tool!

    If/when you need a new TPMS sensor, just clone the one you’re replacing. It’s fast and doesn’t require a $$$ TPMS tool or a trip to the dealer. This is also the best way to have 2 sets of wheels/tires. Just clone all 4 of your existing sensors and install them in a second set of wheels/tires. Your car will never know you have a different set of wheels installed…and the TPMS system will continue to function properly.



    Here is video of a technician cloning an Autel sensor. He's using a slightly different cloning method with his tool, but the final result is the same as what I demonstrated in this post...



    NOTE: The Autel sensor he cloned in this video is slightly different than the sensor I used. He is using Autel's 1 Sensor. This sensor broadcasts at both 315 and 433 MHz. This sensor should work on a Mirage.



    FINAL NOTE:

    Someone asked me if you can program an Autel sensor after it has been installed in the wheel. I believe the answer is YES. However, the tire has to be deflated to 5psi or less before the sensor can be reprogrammed.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-04-2019 at 01:52 AM.

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    6. TPMS Tools


    The Mirage requires a hand-held electronic tool for nearly everything involved with TPMS. The only TPMS problem you can diagnose on your own without a TPMS tool is an under-inflated tire. So if your TPMS warning light indicates a system malfunction (it flashes for 1 minute immediately after the engine is started) and you don't have a TPMS tool, then you'll have a tough time trying to figure it out.

    Let's categorize TPMS tools for the Mirage into 2 groups...Basic and Advanced.


    Basic TPMS Tools

    Basic TPMS tools will only tell you about the TPMS sensors installed on your car. These tools don't come with an OBDII interface...so they won't give you any information about what's going on in your TPMS computer. Tools like this can be found for under $150.

    Here are the functions a basic TPMS tool can perform...

    • Trigger a TPMS sensor ("trigger" means signal the sensor to immediately transmit data)
    • Read the ID from a TPMS sensor
    • Display the condition of a TPMS sensor battery
    • Display the pressure and temperature being transmitted from a TPMS sensor
    • Detect what frequency a sensor is using to transmit data (315 or 433 MHz)


    Advanced TPMS Tools

    Advanced TPMS tools perform all of the functions above...but they can also communicate with the car's TPMS computer through the OBDII port to do the following...

    • Read and clear TPMS trouble codes from the computer
    • Read the 4 sensor IDs registered in the computer
    • Write sensor IDs into the computer
    • Initiate a re-learn procedure to register the 4 sensors currently installed on the car

    Advanced tools are more complex and can easily cost $500-$1000+. Advanced tools also require software updates to keep them up-to-date with new model changes. The real challenge for Mirage owners is finding an advanced TPMS tool that actually works on our cars! Read the important note at the end of this post for more information.



    What about cloning functionality in a TPMS tool?

    Cloning is a function that isn't exclusively associated with one type of TPMS tool. There are basic and advanced tools available that can clone sensors.



    Does a TPMS tool require future software updates?

    Any moderately sophisticated TPMS tool will require software updates to keep up-to-date with current models. Most professional-grade TPMS tool companies will give you 1 year of free updates with the purchase of your tool. Beyond that, you can expect to pay a yearly subscription fee when you want to update the tool. A single software update can often cost over $150...so keep that in mind when tool shopping.

    The Autel TPMS tool demonstrated in the previous post comes with lifetime software updates. So that's a huge bonus for a tool that is not expensive to purchase.



    Do I need a basic or advanced TPMS tool for my Mirage?

    If you can read and clone sensors, you will be able to handle 98% of TPMS issues your car will ever have. For most of us, the only time we'll experience a TPMS issue is when a sensor dies and we need to diagnose/replace it. A basic tool that can clone sensors will fix that.

    If you want to add TPMS sensors to a second set of wheels/tires so the TPMS light won't turn on when you change wheels, a basic tool that can clone sensors will also handle that.

    Advanced tools are only required when your TPMS indicates a system malfunction even when all your sensors appear to be functioning. At that point, you'll need to pull the error codes out of the TPMS computer to figure out what is going on. Only an advanced TPMS tool is going to do that.



    IMPORTATNT NOTE ABOUT MIRAGE TPMS SYSTEMS AND TPMS TOOLS

    There is something unique about Mitsubishi TPMS computers in the Mirage that prevents almost all advanced aftermarket tools from working on our cars. Many manufacturers say their tools will interface with Mitsubishi TPMS computers...but they often DO NOT WORK on a Mirage.

    Bartec is one of the few manufacturers right now who openly advertises that their TPMS tool WILL work with a Mirage (if you use their special "Mitsubishi" interface cable). If a special cable is required for the Mirage but no other manufacturers require something like this...that should tell you that something odd is going on with the TPMS systems in our cars.

    Check out Bartec's video here to see how their tool works on a Mirage: Bartec Mitsubishi TPMS Adapter

    UPDATE: My local Discount Tire has the Bartec tool (and the Mitsubishi adapter cable) and they are able to do register sensor IDs in a Mirage. Check with your local store before you give up and head to the dealer.

    UPDATE: ATEQ now has an advanced TPMS tool Ateq VT56 that says it works on a Mirage. Here's their press release below. Keep in mind this is a $1000+ tool...

    Feb 4, 2019

    ATEQ just recently expanded Mitsubishi coverage. The VT56 software version DA1-26-20 now includes new Mitsubishi TPMS coverage thanks to new patented technology, Sync ID, an enhanced OBD communication to increase OBD relearn coverage for Asian, Domestic, and European vehicles. Vehicles covered in the VT56 as of summer 2018 include:

    Eclipse, Eclipse Cross, Endeavor, Galant, i-MiEV, Lancer, Mirage, Montero, Outlander, Outlander Sport, Raider, RVR

    A video demonstration of this tool can be viewed HERE

    Bottom Line
    If you are considering an advanced TPMS tool that claims it can read/write sensor IDs to the computer, check with the manufacturer to verify that it will work with a 2014+ Mirage. Some manufacturers are not aware that their tools don't work on a Mirage. Be sure you can return ANY TPMS tool you buy...because there's always a chance it won't work as advertised.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 07-07-2019 at 04:05 PM.

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    7. Inexpensive TPMS Tool Suggestion

    Check out the Autel TS408

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    The Autel TS408 a basic TPMS tool that can read TPMS sensor data and it can program/clone Autel sensors. This may be the least expensive tool available that can do both of these functions. This tool is only $125 on Amazon...and may be even cheaper on eBay.

    The TS408 is not an advanced TPMS tool...so you can't use it to read TPMS trouble codes from the computer. It also can't read TPMS sensor IDs from the computer or register sensor IDs into the computer. But the functions it can do are impressive for the price.

    Autel may occasionally update the software for this tool, but you get FREE software upgrades for life. That's a nice benefit worth mentioning.

    Autel programmable sensors are about $30/each online. I see sets of 4 every day on eBay for $100 shipped...and that includes 4 new valve stems. Remember that 1 OEM sensor from the dealer lists for about $90.



    There are a few things to be aware of when considering Autel TPMS tools:

    • Autel tools can only program Autel brand TPMS programmable sensors.

    • Autel sensors can only be programmed with an Autel tool. So don't buy Autel sensors and expect your local shop to be able to program them. Unless they have an Autel tool, they may not be able to help you.

    • Autel uses a proprietary valve stem with their TPMS sensors. It looks just like a normal valve stem on the outside of the wheel. But on the inside, it uses a unique end where the sensor snaps on. It's not a standard VS90 valve stem...so you can't install OEM sensors on Autel valve stems and vice versa. This isn't that big of a deal...because when you purchase an Autel programmable sensor, a new Autel valve stem is included. Here's a picture so you can see what I'm talking about...

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    Autel programmable sensors have a couple of other interesting features:

    • In addition to standard programmable sensors, they have programmable sensors that broadcast both TPMS frequencies (315/433 MHz) at the same time (link here). So you can buy the same TPMS sensor for your Mirage that you would use in your Chevrolet or Honda. For most of us, who cares...but it's a big advantage for a shop that can carry 1 sensor for 98% of TPMS applications.

    • Autel has 2 styles of valve stems that work with all of their sensors. They have the normal looking rubber valve stem, and a fancier metal stem that is typically found on aluminum wheels. It's not a big deal for most of us...but you have the option of using fancier valve stems if you have nicer wheels.

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    NOTE:

    Autel makes advanced TPMS tools...but I haven't seen one yet that will work on a Mirage!
    Don't be tempted to buy an advanced Autel tool unless you need it for other vehicles. Ask me how I know.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 03-30-2019 at 06:29 PM.

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    8. MIRAGE TPMS FAQ


    Why do I need TPMS when I can just buy a gauge and measure the air pressure in the tires?

    The primary advantage of TPMS is that it can alert you of a sudden loss of air pressure in a tire while the car is moving. This may give you enough warning to move off of the road safely before the tire completely deflates...preventing a loss of vehicle control. It may also allow you to stop the car before your tire or wheel is permanently damaged.



    Do all Mirages have TPMS?

    No. Mirages built for sale in the US and the EU have TPMS. However, TPMS is not mandated in all countries. Mirages sold in Canada do not have TPMS because it is not required there.



    Where is the TPMS warning light in a Mirage?

    The TPMS warning light is located just to the left of the LEFT turn signal indicator on your instrument panel. The next time you start your engine, look for it. It will illuminate for 3-4 seconds (as a bulb-test) every time the car starts.

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    How low does my tire pressure need to be before the TPMS warning light turns on?

    The TPMS warning light will illuminate when one or more tires have a pressure that is 25% below the pressure listed on the Tire Pressure and Loading Label in the driver's door jamb (35 PSI). That would mean a tire pressure around 26 PSI or below will turn the light on.



    Will the TPMS light turn on if I over-inflate my tires?

    No. The system is only there to alert you for low tire pressure. You can put 50 PSI in your tires and the light will remain off.



    How long do TPMS sensor batteries last?

    The industry says the expected battery life of a TPMS sensor is between five and ten years. There are a lot of factors involved that affect battery life. Here's a quote I found from someone in the TPMS sensor manufacturing business...

    Sensors usually transmit less while a vehicle is stopped, more often while it’s in motion, and a lot more as it accelerates or decelerates. A constant speed, such as highway driving, allows sensors to transmit less often. In general, short distances with numerous starts and stops will have a greater impact than overall miles driven. In other words, 10,000 city miles will result in lower battery life compared to 10,000 highway miles.

    With 2014 Mirages approaching 5+ years of age, I would expect an occasional sensor to start showing up with a dead battery.



    Can I check the condition of the batteries in my TPMS sensors?

    Many TPMS tools can test the sensor (while it's still installed in the wheel) and report the general condition of a sensor battery. From what I have read, the ability of a sensor to report its battery condition accurately seems to vary. So I'm not sure how well this check works in reality.



    Can I replace the battery in a TPMS sensor when it goes dead?

    No...the batteries are sealed inside each sensor.



    What radio frequency do Mirage TPMS sensors use to transmit data?

    Most TPMS sensors use one of 2 frequencies...315 MHz or 433 MHz. The Mirage uses 315 MHz sensors. When buying replacment TPMS sensors for your Mirage, make sure they are 315 MHz sensors...because the Mirage computer will ony receive signals at this frequency.



    Are all 315 MHz TPMS sensors interchangeable?

    No. Manufacturers may use the same frequency for TPMS systems but they use their own communication protocols to transmit TPMS data. So even though Mitsubishi and Mazda both use 315 MHz TPMS sensors, they would not be interchangeable because they use different communication protocols.

    If you buy "universal/programmable" 315 MHz sensors, then they can be programmed to use the communication protocol specific to your vehicle.



    How can I find out what 4 TPMS sensor IDs are stored in my car's computer?

    There are 3 ways to determine the sensor IDs in the computer:

    1. Use a TPMS tool to read the ID of the sensor in each wheel
    2. Remove the sensors from the wheels and read the IDs printed on them
    3. Use a Mitsubishi scan tool (or advanced TPMS tool) to plug into the OBDII port and read the ID values directly from the computer.

    Option #1 above is by far the easiest method and can be done with a basic TPMS tool in about a minute. But method #1 may not work if a sensor battery is completely dead or the sensor transmitter has failed.



    Is it possible to read the ID of a TPMS sensor that has a dead battery?

    A TPMS sensor with a dead battery may not be able to transmit data. That's not good because a TPMS tool needs to receive the signal transmitted from the sensor in order to read the sensor's ID number. I have found that even when a sensor appears to be dead to the TPMS computer, it still has enough power left in it so that the ID can be transmitted from the sensor long enough for a TPMS tool to capture it.

    In a worst-case scenario where the sensor has failed completely and won't transmit anything, you can remove the sensor from the wheel and the ID will be printed on the outside of the sensor.



    Is a sensor's ID number indicated on the sensor somewhere?

    Yes. If you have an OEM or standard replacement sensor, look for an 8 character identifier printed on the outside of the sensor. This is the TPMS sensor ID number. This picture below is an OEM Mirage sensor and shows the ID number...

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    I heard that the Mirage's computer can store 2 sets of TPMS IDs. Is that true?

    Some European Mirage computers can store 2 sets of 4 TPMS Sensor IDs (only 1 set is active at any time). You indicate which set is active using the information button on the instrument panel. Someone from Finland posted a page from his owner's manual which shows how this is done. Cars built for sale in North America can only store 1 set of TPMS IDs.

    NOTE: With the ability to clone sensors, having 2 sets of wheels with different TPMS IDs no longer makes any sense because that's actually more difficult to maintain than 2 sets of wheels that both have the same TPMS IDs.



    Does the Mirage spare tire have a TPMS sensor?

    No. The spare tire is not part of the TPMS system.



    What does it mean to "trigger" a TPMS sensor?

    When you trigger a TPMS sensor, you use some method to force a sensor to activate and immediately transmit its sensor ID and pressure data. There are typically 2 methods used to trigger a sensor:

    1. Use a TPMS tool to send a low radio frequency signal (125 KHz) to the sensor which causes it to transmit data
    2. Quickly releasing 3-4 PSI of pressure from a tire within a short period of time (30 seconds) will cause a sensor to transmit data

    Some older TPMS sensors can also be triggered by placing a large magnet near the valve stem of the wheel. This method won't work on Mirage sensors as far as I know. I'm only mentioning it because some TPMS tools still come with a large magnet as part of the kit.




    Why would you need to trigger a TPMS sensor?

    There are a few situations where it is necessary to trigger a sensor:

    1. You trigger a sensor to test it and see if it's dead or alive
    2. You trigger a sensor when you need to read its ID number, pressure data or battery condition
    3. You trigger a sensor during a sensor re-learn (registration) process. This is a process by which the computer listens for the 4 sensors installed on the car and it stores the ID number of each sensor into the computer as each one is triggered.




    Does the Mirage's computer know which sensor is installed on which wheel?

    Not really. There's a "registration" procedure that the Mirage computer uses to store the 4 sensor IDs. It requires the technician to trigger each of the 4 TPMS sensors to register them...BUT the service manual states that the sensors don't need to be triggered in any specific order! This is different from some other vehicles which do require TPMS registration in a specific order (usually LF-RF-RR-LR).

    Related Note: Most Mirage TPMS trouble codes indicate which tire sensor is having an issue. Just remember that even though a TPMS code may say there's a problem with "Tire 1"...that really means that it's a problem with the sensor ID registered as Tire 1. Tire 1 could be anywhere on the car at that point.



    Will rotating my tires affect the TPMS system?

    No. The Mirage computer doesn't know (or care) WHERE the 4 TPMS sensors are located on the car. As long as the computer receives a signal from the 4 registered sensor IDs on the car, your TPMS light will remain OFF. Some manufacturers require you to re-register the sensors in a specific order after a tire rotation...but this is not necessary for a Mirage.



    Will Fix-A-Flat or similar products damage Tire pressure sensors?

    Fix-a-Flat, Tire Slime and similar sealant products all say they are "TPMS safe"...but try to avoid these types of products unless you have no options left to inflate a leaking tire. If you get this stuff on a sensor and it stops working, you may have to remove the tire from the wheel and clean off all the goo from the wheel and sensor to fix it. And you can bet your dealer will not do this and consider it warranty work!



    Is there a way I can display the TPMS pressure readings from my 4 tires on my instrument panel?

    No...but you can buy a device that can display your TPMS data. Check out THIS thread for a full explanation.



    Do you have to completely dismount the tire from the wheel in order to replace a TPMS sensor?

    No. An installer can break the bead on one side of the tire and have enough room to replace the valve stem and TPMS sensor with the tire still mounted. This way you can replace a sensor without having to re-balance the wheel.



    Can I install a TPMS sensor myself?

    It is possible to do it yourself if you want to try it. I have never attempted this and personally I wouldn't mess with it because I have nice wheels I don't want scratched. Here's a video of someone replacing a sensor with an improvised tire tool to break the tire bead on one side of the wheel...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Maunq29ow2U



    Do I have to buy replacement TPMS sensors from the dealer?

    Definitely not. Any replacement TPMS sensor that broadcasts at 315MHz will work. Many OEM sensors are manufactured by companies that also sell aftermarket sensors. A dealer is probably the most expensive place you can go to buy a sensor.



    Are aftermarket sensors as good as OEM?

    I've run aftermarket sensors (Orange, Autel, VDO) in other vehicles and have never had a problem with them. I'm running one Autel sensor in my Mirage right now and it's working fine. You can check out online reviews to see what others are saying about them.



    A shop is installing new TPMS sensors...and they recommend that I replace the valve stems at the same time. Are they trying to sell me something I don't need or rip me off?

    Replacing valve stems when a tire or sensor is replaced is always a good idea...especially if the valve stem is more than a couple of years old. Don't cut corners here to save a few dollars. The shop is just following tire industry standards.



    A shop is charging me $8 each for replacement valve stems. Am I getting ripped off?

    No...that's a normal "tire store" price for a VS-90 valve stem. Remember these are not normal valve stems even though they look like $0.99 rubber valve stems from the outside of the wheel. VS-90 valve stems even cost a few dollars each at AutoZone.



    Is a TPMS sensor ID number some sort of code?

    You don't need to know or remember this...but sensor IDs are hexadecimal values. If you aren't familar with hex numbers, you can use a hexadecimal converter to translate a sensor ID into a regular numeric value.

    As an example...I have a sensor with an ID of 8D2D988C. This actually represents the number 2368575628. Check out a Hexadecimal to Decimal Converter here.

    Again...this is all useless trivia that you don't need to remember.



    I can register TPMS sensors in my Ford/GM/Chrylser with a simple set of steps and without a TPMS tool. Can I do this in a Mirage?

    No. There's no way to register sensor IDs in a Mirage without using a Mitsubishi scan tool or advanced TPMS tool. Many Asian and European cars (including Mitsubishis) require tools to do this.



    How often is the tire pressure measured by a Mirage TPMS sensor?

    Every 5 seconds when the car is moving faster than 15 mph, otherwise every 1 minute.



    How often is the pressure data transmitted to the Mirage's computer?

    As soon as the car starts moving, the reading is sent every 15 seconds for 30 transmissions.
    Then every 1 minute when the car is moving faster than 15 miles per hour.
    When the car is stationary, the signal is sent once every 13 hours.



    What data is transmitted from a TPMS sensor?

    Each TPMS sensor broadcasts 4 items of data:

    1. TPMS Sensor ID
    2. Tire Pressure
    3. Air Temperature (inside the tire)
    4. Some sort of code identifying the protocol (format) of the data the sensor is broadcasting



    What data does the TPMS computer need to function properly?

    The computer needs the 4 items of data sent by each TPMS sensor:

    1. TPMS Sensor ID
    2. Tire Pressure
    3. Air Temperature
    4. Code identifying the sensor's data protocol

    ...and it also needs these two input signals from the PCM:

    1. Vehicle Speed
    2. Atmospheric Pressure



    Does the Mirage TPMS computer compensate for higher altitudes?

    Yes...the system receives the barometric pressure input from the PCM and automatically compensates for altitude changes. When the atmospheric pressure is low (high altitudes), the TPMS computer recalibrates the tire pressure values received from each TPMS sensor before determining if the tire pressure is low.



    My TPMS light is on but my tire pressures are all OK. Can I use an OBDII Code Reader to read the TPMS trouble codes to figure out what the problem is?

    No. The TPMS computer is separate from the powertrain control module. If you want to retrieve TPMS error codes, you will need the dealer to read these codes OR you will need an advanced TPMS tool to access TPMS data. A generic OBDII code reader will not tell you anything about TPMS problems.



    Can I disable the Mirage's TPMS system?

    No. Unless someone figures out how to hack into the ETACS module, there's no way to turn off TPMS. I've seen some devices online that will bypass the TPMS system and keep the light off...but I haven't seen one for any late model Mitsubishi. Do a web search on "TPMS Bypass" and you'll see some interesting devices.



    Can I trick the TPMS computer by installing my 4 TPMS sensors a spare wheel/tire and throwing it in my back seat?

    Similar tricks used to work in some cars years ago. Unfortunately, current TPMS systems are too advanced. If TPMS sensors are not moving inside a rotating wheel...they aren't transmitting any pressure data. If you tried this trick in a Mirage you would get a TPMS system error.



    Can I program the same ID number into 4 different sensors and install them on my car.

    That's an interesting concept...but it won't work. Somehow you would need to get the same ID number registered in the TPMS computer for tire loocation 1, 2, 3 and 4. The car's firmware is too smart...it won't store the same ID number more than one time. So you would never be able to get the computer to accept the same number after the 1st one has been registred.



    I installed one (or more) new TPMS sensors on my Mirage, but I haven't registered the IDs yet. If I start driving the car, will the TPMS warning light turn on right away because the sensors aren't registered?

    No. It takes a certain amount of time and/or driving before the light will come on. I installed new sensors and drove my car for more than an hour before the light finally turned on.



    If the TPMS light is on, does that impact the function of the car's traction or stability control?

    That's a good question that I haven't quite figured out yet. There probably is some connection between these systems...but I'm not sure. In some vehicles I don't think you can turn off traction control if the TPMS light is on.



    I had new tires installed on my car, but it was not done at a Mitsubishi dealership. Does this affect the warranty on my TPMS sensors?

    Yes. A dealer might deny warranty coverage on your TPMS sensors if someone other than a Mitsubishi dealer put new wheels or tires on your car. It says this in your owner's manual (see below). When I took my car in under warranty with a TPMS issue, the first question the Service Advisor asked me was "Have you ever had new tires put on the car?"

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    What is the difference between direct and indirect TPMS?

    Direct TPMS systems uses air pressure sensors in the wheels to determine if a tire is low.
    Indirect TPMS uses the wheel speed sensors of the ABS system to determine that a tire is low (when a tire has low air pressure, its diameter is reduced slightly). All Mirage TPMS systems are direct.



    When did TPMS systems become required in the US?

    TPMS has been required in all US vehicles since 2008.
    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 08-03-2019 at 02:16 AM.

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    9. How to View Real-Time TPMS Data

    See this thread for instructions on how you can see real-time data broadcasting from your TPMS sensors:

    How to see real-time TPMS data in a Mirage (Huf-ID1000)


    Last edited by Top_Fuel; 08-03-2019 at 01:49 AM.

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